Speech Errors

Vocal cues. 1. Mistakes in verbal fluency, including repetition, stuttering, mispronounced words, incomplete clauses, and throat-clearing.

Usage: Increased frequency in speech errors may indicate anger, anxiety, or stress (Mehrabian 1974:89).

Hem and haw. 1. Hem: "A short cough or clearing of the throat made especially to gain attention, warn another, hide embarrassment, or fill a pause in speech" (Soukhanov 1992:841). 2. Haw: "An utterance used by a speaker who is fumbling for words" (Soukhanov 1992:829).

RESEARCH REPORTS: 1. Speech hesitations tend to occur at the beginnings of clauses, usually after the first word (Boomer 1965). 2. "George Mahl of Yale University has found that errors become more frequent as the speaker's discomfort or anxiety increases" (Mehrabian 1974:89).

Neuro-notes. Emotion from the limbic system carries to the larynx and pharynx through special visceral (i.e., "gut reactive") nerves. Anxiety may also divert mental concentration.

Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.

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