What Metalevel responses and states

• What supporting beliefs and values?

With these questions we have just entered into the domain of strategies. In NLP, this refers to "the structure of subjective experience." Building on the Cognitive-Behavioral work of Miller, Galanter, and Pribram (1960) in Plans And The Structure Of Behavior, Dilts, Bandler, Grinder, Cameron-Bandler and DeLozier (1980) took their TOTE model and enriched it with the representation systems.

Using the flow chart of human consciousness as it moves through the phases of Testing, Operating, Testing, and Exiting (TOTE) [which function as cognitive-behavioral information processing programs], the NLP co-founders greatly enhanced the TOTE model.

Actually, this model began in behaviorism in the S-R model (stimulus-response) of Pavlov and Watson. At this level we have a simple association linkage between stimulus ami response. Viewing human "mind" and response in this model, the external events (the stimuli) cause a response (a feeling, emotion, understanding, behavior, etc.).

Stimulus —> Response

Then, as the early and middle decades of the twentieth century passed, this S-R model became increasingly inadequate for explaining human functioning. Eventually a behaviorist, Tollman (1923), added a cognitive dimension to it. lie developed S-O-R by bringing in Other Variables (the O). He used this expression rather than the (at that time) dirty word "mind."

Yet the TOTE model had to wait for the cognitive revolution initiated by George Miller (1956) and Neiser (1967) and the refinements that brain researcher Karl Pribram added. This refined the S-O-R model much further. In this model a responding organism inputs some sensory stimulus (S) and tests it internally against some coded representation of a desired state or criterion (O). As the testing proceeds, it either meets the test or fails to meet it. This results in congruity—so that the external and internal representations match (e.g., the volume of the stereo externally matches what the person internally prefers). Or it may result in incongruity, so that the external ¿md internal representations do not match. If they do not match, the person may test again by altering his or her internal representations or by operating on the external stimulus (e.g., turning up the volume), Exiting such a "program" of input, processing, and output results in some kind of response or behavior.

Later the NLP co-founders got hold of the TOTE model and dressed it up to make it usable as the structural format for thinking about human strategies—the flow of human consciousness in a formulaic way as it sequences itself until it generates responses.

Many times the problems that we experience in life have to do with the strategy question of "how to." WTe know what to do. We just don't have the know how. We have clarified what effective action or response to take. We want to speak assertively, speak before groups with confidence, resolve conflicts with a win/win attitude, forgive, motivate ourselves to complete an unpleasant task, exercise regularly, eat more sensibly, think before we act, etc. But how do we pull such things off? What strategy (sequence of internal representations) will provide us with the formula for directionalizing and training our brain-body to so respond?

This describes the place for strategy awareness, development, accessing, utilizing, etc. St), in this chapter we have included, under the category of strategy, the NLP patterns that provide the formulas (or processes) whereby we can "take effective actions."

Hypnosis Plain and Simple

Hypnosis Plain and Simple

These techniques will work for stage hypnosis or hypnotherapy, however, they are taught here for information purposes only. After reading this book you will have the knowledge and ability necessary to hypnotise people, but please do not practice hypnosis without first undergoing more intensive study.

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