Figure

Specific Qualities And Distinctions In Each Representational System

Visual:

• location of images

• snapshot or movie (still or

• horizontal and vertical perspective

• associated or dissociated

• brightness (from dull to moving)

• number of images

• bordered or panoramic

• color or black-and-white

• foreground and background contrast

Auditory:

• location of sounds

• number of sound sources

• quality (clarity, intelligi bility or lack thereof)

Kinesthetic:

• location of sensations

• temperature

• what sensations

And in the auditory digital system of language:

• location of words

• sensory based or evaluative • current or dated.

• simple or complex

Processing Levels

NLP operates not only as a model, but also ¿is a model-about-models, as illustrated in Figure 23.

Neurologically, we first map the territory of the world as we generate non-language representations using our sensory channels (the VAK). These neurological representations exist at a level below, or prior to, words. Then, to think about those RS, we map at a higher level. We make a linguistic map by using words, symbols, metaphors, etc. Language functions as signals about signals—a meta-level.

Within the level of modalities, we have the domain that we have come to know as submodalities. This term, "sufcmodalities," however offers a mislabeling. These discrete facets of the VAK do not actually exist at a lower logical level ("sub") to the modalities. They actually comprise the features and characteristics within the representation. And yet this set of distinctions (submodalities) does explain and govern much of "the magic" that occurs in many of the NLP patterns. In applying submodalities, we make finer distinctions about the coding of an experience, and that, in turn, leads to greater precision in designing strategies and working with subjective experiences.

Finally, at the top level of the figure, note the meta-modality of language. This describes our sixth sense inasmuch as by language we talk about our senses; the meanings we attribute to what we see, hear, and feel.

The NLP "Information Processing" Model

More Abstractive Language (the Milton Model)

l inguistics (a meta-level signal) Evaluative Language

Sensory Language

Sensory Based Representations (Neurology) Visual / Auditor)' / Kinesthetic / Olfactory / Gustatory Representations

Submodnlities

(Specific Qualities within Each Representational System) Higher Information Processing Levels

Above the neurological and language RS, we have an area noted in Figure 2.3 as the meta-level.

"Meta" (a key word) refers to something "above" or "beyond" something else. When something stands in a meta relationship to something else, it exists at a higher logical level and refers to, or stands as "about", a lower level.

When we move up the continuum on the figure, we find the meta-level phenomena: beliefs, values, criteria, frames, presuppositions, metaphors, narrative, etc. Here we have also developed meta-level technologies: Time-line patterns, the V-K dissociation, ecology checks, Milton-model (hypnosis), Core Transformation, Meta-belief change work, Keframing, etc.

At the primary level, thoughts induce states. The coding (and sub-qualities of the RS code) of sights, sounds, and sensations moves us into a mind-body state of consciousness. Ibis continues as we move up the scale. When we turn our states reflexively upon other states, we create and experience states-about-states (fear of fear, calmness about anger, joy about learning, love about loving, etc.). Hall (1995) designated these states-about-states as Meta-states.

The Mela-states model (1995) makes even more explicit these internal processes that occur at these higher levels. We have long known that phenomena at these higher logical levels drive and control the lower levels (i.e., "primary states"). The Meta-statcs model makes this explicit and shows how it works. So we have put it at the higher levels, above the level of the RS.

Logical Levels Of States

A primary state refers to a state such as those that involve primary emotions (fear, anger, joy, lust, relaxation, pleasure, disgust, etc.). A Meta-state, by contrast, refers to those states that contain thoughts-and-emotions about a primary state: anger at one's fear, guilt about one's anger, feeling upset about one's disgust, fear of one's fear, depression about one's fear, etc.

States-about-states (Meta-states) explains the critical importance of the unconscious frames that govern our presuppositional lives. It also explicitly details Bateson's insights about meta-levels. Bateson argued that we can discern meaning not only via the words or syntax of a structure, but by considering the larger contexts within which the words and syntax occur. This explains how Meta-state technology can have such pervasive and generative effects in change wTork.

The Meta-states model explains many of the so-called "failures" which some people have experienced with NLP. Essentially, they have worked with a meta-level experience or phenomena using primary state technology. For instance, to test kinesthetic anchoring (see the Anchoring Pattern), one might have a person access a state involving meta-levels rather than primary levels and set a sensory-based (VAK) anchor for resilience, proactivity, self-esteem. One might then fire off the anchor at a later time and, finding it would not re-access that state, one might then conclude that "NLP does not work."

Meta-level theory explains that, while we can anchor primary states with sights, sounds, and sensations (VAK), Meta-states need a meta-mechanism (like language, higher level linguistics, symbols, etc.) in order to anchor such experiences. After all, self-reflexive consciousness operates at a meta-level to the basic modalities level.

The Meta-states model distinguishes between primary and meta-states Primary states (e.g., fear, anger, etc.) generally refer to the territory beyond our skin. We use such states to cope and master things. Meta-states deal with high level abstractions: self, time-space, morality (good/bad; right/wrong), relationships, values, beliefs, emotions, etc. Meta-states inherently involve recursive, self-reflexive consciousness which enables us to reflect on our thinking (i.e., meta-think), feel about our feelings (meta-emote), talk about our talk (meta-communicate), etc.

Primary level anchors set up a neurological "learning" whereby outside stimuli condition our response. Anchors, as conditional stimuli, function as NLP's user-friendly version of classical conditioning. We anchor content.

When we set an anchor at a meta-level (the Learning II level), we anchor the method of how we process the learning context, rather than the learning itself. Bateson designated these anchors as "context markers" (trigger, suggestion, word, etc.). I hey identify the frame of reference under which we operate. These access the context, which triggers a different kind of processing. Here we have meta-anchors.

Words generally comprise these context markers or meta-level anchors. We can include (as meta-level anchors) most evaluative terms, terms about classes and categories, complex equivalences, meta-frames about meanings, cause-effect terms, meta-programs that refer to one's meta-processing level, etc. Anchors that contain a meta-level within them involve the auditory-digital representation system. (Do you find many of these terms new and strange? They make up other facets of the NLP model that we will gradually define as we progress!)

Logical Levels Within The Representations

Technologies: Meia-Stetes (States-about-states)

1>ie Meta-modd, H

Time-Lines, Beliefs/Value.

Milton-Model (Hypnosis) Linguistics (a meta-lcvel signal)

Sensory I anguage technologies; MODALITIES

Eye Accessing Cues Sensory Based Representations (Neurology; VAK R5) Fating Anchoring Collapsing Anchors

Subnuidalitii* Specific Qualities in Each

Technologies: Representational System

SBMD Shifting

Contrastive Analysis, Swishing

The Mechanisms Of Change

Understanding How The "Magic" Works

Given this model of human functioning and patterning, how do we explain "change," transformation, pathology, renewal, etc.? How do the human technologies incorporated in the transformation patterns work? How does this technology function to effect change and transformation in human affairs?

First, the transformation technology functions as all Cognitive-Behavioral psychology models function—by the cognitive-emotive mechanism of representation. We don't operate on the world directly, but indirectly, through our maps of the world. NLP combines the best of the cognitive movement and the best of the behavioral movement. Written with a hyphen, cognitive-behavioral recognizes that both factors operate in our mind-bodies as an interactive system. I "his model incorporates the best also from the neuro-linguistics of General Semantics and from the family system model of the MRI (Mental Research institute) that generated the Solution-Oriented Brief Therapy model. All of the explanatory mechanisms that one finds in those domains, apply here.

Presuppositions Meta-Frames Core Transformation

Reframing V-K Dissociation Evaluative Language

As a cognitive-behavioral model, we begin with the post-modem recognition of constructivism. This means that the internal representations we have of the world—we have constructed and store in our nervous system. The human experience involves creating internal representational maps of the territory.

Thus, as we process, code, and construct our internal model(s) of the world (our cognitive-emotional schemas or paradigms) we experience, feel, communicate, and behave. Our sense and experience of reality come from our maps of reality. Therefore, when we change our maps—we change our reality. This summarizes the basis of human transformation.

As a meta-psychology model, NLP began by exploring how human programming (learning, conditioning, experiencing) gets coded at the neuro-mental (or neuro-linguistic) level. As a result, \ILP generated a working pattern of the structure of human subjectivity.

Korzybski (1941/1994) noted that in the process of "abstracting" information from the world—we make a map of reality. He formulated the now-classic map-territory distinction, "The map is not the territory." He also noted that, if our map hiis a similar correspondence (the correspondence theory of truth) or a usefulness so that it leads us to the places we want to go (the pragmatic theory of truth), then, as a map, we can work effectively from it. If it meets neither of these criteria, then it functions as a "problem" to us and needs changing, updating, or deleting!

NLP, incorporating Chomsky's transformational or generative grammar, formulates a map-making model using three "modeling processes." These include deletion, generalization, and distortion, which refer to the fact that, as we handle the billions of bytes of information per second striking our nervous system, we delete most of this information, generalize a good bit of it, and distort the rest of it. As a result of our abstracting via these processes, we create a paradigm. We model the world and then use our nervous system and "mental" constructs to navigate our way through life.

As such, we then recognize that cognitive-behavioral mechanisms ultimately mediate our experiences. We create our reality through our perceptions. This map of the territory differs radically from the territory itself. If our experience of reality seems most limited, problematic—then the problem lies in our paradigm, not in the world. Thus it becomes a case, not of the world's existing as too limited and impoverished, but that our map of the world suffers from impoverishment.

Our neuro-linguistics thus describe the central mechanism that mediates our experiences. When we change our neuro-linguistic structure (how we use our languages of the mind and our physiology), we change our reality and our experience.

On To The Patterns Of Human Technology Or Magic

Understanding how we use the representational systems and their submodalities and how they put us into mind-body states (neuro-linguistic states), and how we all model the world using the processes of deletion, generalization, and distortion, we can now track down the patterns that create our subjective experiences. Such "strategy" analysis allows us to effectively work with subjective experiences.

Using cues to neuro-processing such as eye accessing cues (Appendix A), linguistic markers, non-verbal calibration, physiology, etc., we can obtain the person's internal formula, program, or strategy that runs their experiences. This formula gives us an inside track to the structure of their subjective pain and distress.

The NLP model does not consider people broken, only their maps! People work perfectly well. NLP operates from the same premise that has become a password in Narrative Therapy:

"The person is not the problem; the problem is the problem!"

Pathology occurs in our neuro-linguistic maps of the territory. Operating from poor and impoverished maps results in impoverished and limited wiws of living, thinking, feeling, relating, behaving, etc.

The change process then requires another set of patterns by which we can disrupt old patterns and co-create new, more effective patterns. Patterns, as step-by-step processes, can help people bring about their transformation.

Enough explanation and theory—on to the patients! In the pages that follow, you will find pattern after pattern for effectively working with human maps. Each pattern has a brief description of the concept, and sometimes an explanation, and sometimes additional information about the source of the pattern.

We have written each pattern as a step-by-step process. From time to time we have even written some of the hmguage in script form. We did it this way intentionally. We wanted to provide enough content so that even those unfamiliar with a pattern could immediately use it knowledgeably. We also wanted to avoid reducing the patterns to mere outline form, assuming your acquaintance and memory, choosing instead to present them as well-constructed, complete and effective change pieces.

Structural Outline Format

In this book we have sorted "problems" (i.e., challenges, difficulties) into the following categories. We have provided this classification of types or kinds of "issues" so that the reader can use them to more effectively choose, work with, and apply the various NLP patterns. This categorization thus provides a way to sort and separate "problems." In choosing to organize the NLP patterns in this way, we have used this category list as the organizational structure for the following chapters. Thus, we can think about human difficulties falling into the following areas:

• Parts—suffering from two or more "integral parts" in conflict

• Identity—suffering from having one's sense of self in distress

• States—experiencing problematic, unresourceful and/or emotional states of consciousness

• Language—experiencing cognitive errors in self-talk and languaging oneself in negative and distressful ways

• Thinking Styles—suffering from cognitive and percep tual distortions or simply inappropriate meta-

programs

• Meanings—suffering from limiting beliefs and dimin ished meanings

• Strategies—suffering from not knowing how to engender a piece of desired behavior (micro- and macro-

behavior)

Wc offer this purely arbitrary system simply as a way to manage and chunk the following material. Obviously, a person may suffer from incongruity when one part of the self wants to play during work time and work when it is time to play. We could also frame this as a person struggling with beliefs about such conflicts and what this implies about their identity, the states they get into, etc. llach represents a constructed frame of reference and therefore neither exists as more "real" or "true" than the other. Each has different degrees of usefulness.

Further, we do not think of these categories as exclusive ones. They merely offer us one way to sort out human difficulties and the factors that prevent us from experiencing our full potential. We have sorted them in this way simply so that we may address them with various patterns in the NLP arsenal of techniques. Thus, if a particular pattern does not shift a "problem," simply go to another category that may allow you to construct the "problem" in a different way, and see if the technologies there will allow you to transform it.

Hypnosis Plain and Simple

Hypnosis Plain and Simple

These techniques will work for stage hypnosis or hypnotherapy, however, they are taught here for information purposes only. After reading this book you will have the knowledge and ability necessary to hypnotise people, but please do not practice hypnosis without first undergoing more intensive study.

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