## Pentagram

An independent monthly bulletin for all who want good magic

Vo£. 6 Ma, 11 august 1952 Jltice Cmc ShiiLimj iDudCey WMtnalL'i

JEinfkittg, ¿Ring, JUanipuiaUan

Preliminary :

Some fifteen or more years ago, whilst playing around with a set of Linking Rings which happened to include an additional single ring larger in diameter than the olhers, I was lucky enough to hit upon som(e novel uses for that ring, and incidentally upon a most deceptive method of apparently linking and unlinking the chains of two and three permanently linked rings. At a later stage, in March, 1939, to be precise, I contributed to an issue of " The Magic Wand " what I must now regard as a somewhat inadequate explanation in view of the fact that, to the best of my knowledge no other person has ever yet worked the moves. Having regard to the considerable lapse of time, I have been persuaded that republication might not be unwelcome ; and I am taking the opportunity to rewrite the whole material in what I hope will prove to be more intelligible language and also to add some further moves with large size rings as yet unpublished.

The Large Ring:

The exact size of any large ring, in relation to the size of the rings forming the regular set with which it is used, is naturally of some importance. It is, however, sufficient to say that it" diameter should be as small as possible consistent with ability to slip easily over one of the regular single rings without pressure. I use a set of rings of the so called 10-inch size and, if I lay my large ring flat on the table with one of the standard single rings inside it so that the rings are in contact at one point of their circumference, the space between outside of the standard ring and inside of the large ring at the opposite point of their circumference measures f of an inch. It is advisable to use a fairly large size pet of rings because the smaller their diameter the larger will be the Large Ring in relation to them and consequently the greater the risk of detection.

Terms Used:

Careful note should be taken of the meaning of certain descriptive terms and abbreviations used, as follows :—

" Chain of two "—Two rings permanently linked together.

" Chain of Three"—Three rings permanently linked together in the form of a chain.

" Linked Position "—That in which two or more linked rings are extended to the maximum possible extent and clearly appear to view as linked rings.

"Closed Position"—That in which two or more linked rings appear to the audience as separate and single rings.

Roman Numerals—e.g. VI, refer to points on the circumference of a ring as though they were hours on a clock face as seen from the audience.

"Clock Twisted"—Assume that you are looking downwards upon the chain of two, which hangs from your fingers in a linked position, the lower ring is "clock twisted" when it has been turned horizontally so far as it will go in a clockwise direction.

"Anti-Clock Twisted"—The reverse of the above ; the lower ring being turned in an anticlockwise direction.

Apparent Linking of the Chain of Two :

Stand facing half left. Your left forearm is almost parallel to the ground, and your hand is held palm upwards with the fingers pointing towards the audience. From these hang what appear to be a few single rings, but the two nearest your finger tips, and also nearest the audience, are actually the Chain of Two in a closed position. The Large Ring is at this stage in course of examination by a member of the audience; and this you take from him between the first and second fingers of your right hand.

The move which you are now about to execute and which I have termed the Twisiover Link, is a little difficult to describe in words despite the fact that it is really very simple, but the explanation may prove easier to follow if first I give a rough outline of the effect and of the working principles. To make everything as clear as possible the illustrations only show the chain of two and the large ring. The latter is the twisted ring. The letters A and B represent the position of the left and right hands respectively.

So far as the audience is concerned, the effect is that, without ever relinquishing your right hand grip of an examined single ring, you link it to the outermost ring in your left hand and immediately hand out the two linked rings for examination.

What actually happens is that, in the course of a twirling movement presently to be described, the« Large Ring is passed clean over the rings forming the Chain of Two to take up a posi'ion third from your finger tips. Your first and second finger grip of tne Large Ring is at the same time switched for a thumb and first finger grip of one of the chain rings which latter is then pulled down into a linked position and the two linked rings handed out.

Let us now resume at the point where you had taken the Large Ring in your right hand.

Carry this towards your left hand which grasps it between thumb and two middle fingers at a point on its circumference diametrically opposite to the point where ii is held by your right hand and lower your right hand so that the ring is almost fiat against the other rings. In this position your left thumb and fingers hold it at XII and your right first iwo fingers at VI, second finger being to the front and first finger to the rear. (Fig. 1.).

Now imagine for a moment that, instead of being supported by your left fingers, all the rings are pierced at that point from front to rear by a pin on which they can swing freely in (from the point of view of the audience), a clockwise or anticlockwise direction. Consider the grip of your left thumb and fingers to take the place of such imaginary axis and commence to revolve the Large Ring round it in a clockwise direction (Fig. 2).

Very soon, although allowed to slip off your left first two fingers, the position and resistance of your left thumb prevents any continuance of this movement; and it then changes to a folding movement from left to right (view point of audience), upon a hinge formed by the grip of your left thumb and third finger. (Fig. 3).

As the ring turns over, your thumb releases its grip to permit a passage but then resumes its original position. (Fig. 4.).

Your right hand, which throughout describes a smooth clockwise movement, carries the ring over and behind the chain rings at V, this being assisted by pressure of your lu.. +humb (Fig. 5).

Continuing the clockwise movement, your right hand reaches VI and at about this point, exchanges its first and second finger grip of the Large Ring for a thumb and first finger grip of the nearer chain ring, which ring is at that moment by relaxation of your left thumb and fingers, allowed to fall. (Fig. 6).

Carry this ring smoothly down into a linked position and hand out the chain for examination.

The various stages set out above actually form one continuous movement which occupies about a second, but speed of execution is far from essential. A slow and deliberate movement is much to be preferred and, if anything, looks more convincing.

### Apparent Unlinking of the Chain of Two.

Anybody sufficiently interested to master the linking move just described, will very soon appreciate that something in the nature of a reversal of the process can be utilised to give the effect of an apparent unlinking of two permanently linked rings.

A

Your stance is the same as before, but the Large Ring is nearest to the finger tips of several rings hanging from your left hand. The Chain .of Two is in possession of a member of the audience. With your right hand, collect this and transfer it to your left hand so that it hangs there from in a linked position.

Once again I shall first give a rough oudine of the movement which follows, viz., a sliding and twisting motion of the lower chain ring in relation to its fellow, during the course of which the chain is closed and slipped through the Large Ring, the latter being at once handed out for examination.

To resume, you must first make sure that the lower chain ring has been anti-clock twisted, and then grasp it at VII between your right iir:t finger, on top, and thumb, underneath. Your left thumb presses firmly at XII on the Large Ring and the upper chain ring. (Fig. 7).

With your right hand, commence to slide the lower ring round the upper ring in a clockwise direction (Fig. 8).

As the linking point of the two ringj reaches IX of the upper ring, you also start to fold the lower ring over on to its fellow; and when the linking point reaches XI the lower ring is approximately edge on to the audience—if indeed a ring can be said to possess an edge. (Fig. 9).

Continue this combined movement until at XII the linking point reaches your left thumb and is pressed through the Large Ring to the rear. Your left thumb relaxes slightly to permit this passage and then presses forward on the Large Ring in general support of the movement. At this stage the two chain rings are almost in a closed position. (Fig. 10).

Actual movement of the original lower chain ring has now ceased but your right thumb and first finger continue the clockwise motion by sliding in contact with the motionless ring until at III you find that the Large Ring can be engaged between your right first and second fingers (Fig. 11).

Relax your contact with the chain ring but grip the Large Ring firmly and revolve this to about VI where it comes easily clear of the others and can be handed out.

As in the case of the linking move, there is no necessity for speed. A smooth unhurried clockwise movement of the right hand is the main requisite to produce a convincing illusion of unlinking one ring from the o'her.

(To be continued).

From "THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CONJURING "

ROBERT EDMUND BERNHARD Jr., 1936

Then too, another popular misconception is that there is some particular benefit to be derived from being close to the performer while he is at work. A little thought would make it clear how wrong this notion is It stands to reason that the man who has the performer in view from head to foot is far more dangerous than one who is too close to make a comprehensive inspection. Yet people will still crowd close to the performer.

Of lesser importance, but still noteworthy, is such a factor as timidity of the average audience. Timidity is used by magicians frequently. It may seem unsporting, but here is a typical example : the performer wishes to " force " a card. The easiest course would be for him to go to a young lady and surreptitiously push the card into her hands. Then he a?ks her if she made a free choice. She timidly nods in the affirmative even if she realises that she has been duped. Why? Well, can you imagine a well brought up young lady attracting a lot of attention to herself by raising her voice and making a strenuous objection ? Of course not !

fack ChU&'d

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