On Discrepancies

When making a Weave or Faro Shuffle the most common fault is for the cards to form discrepancies where two cards cling together and are not separated by another card between them. There may be one or several of these clinging pairs in one Faro Shuffle due to either the fault of the cards or the operator. In either case, the usual thing to do is unweave and try again, or perform the Rock to Reweave; however, in the case of controlling a single card, these discrepancies can be figured in accordingly as will be shown.

Assume the top half is taken in the right hand and the bottom half in the left hand.

1. Assume your card is 20th from the top. An accurate In Shuffle normally brings it to 40th from the top. Let us assume that there are discrepancies and that these are above the selection, As those below the selection would in no way affect the cards' new position, Only those above the card need be considered.

2. If a discrepancy occurs in the bottom half or Undercut portion, above the selection, then you merely add one to the doubled number. In other words, the card will be 41st instead of 40th. If there are two discrepancies you would add two to the doubled number, making it 42. You add one for each discrepance in original bottom half of the deck providing there are no discrepancies in the original top half.

3. If the discrepancies occur in the original top packet, you subtract one for each discrepancy from the doubled value. In this case, one discrepancy is 40 minus 1 equals 39. If there are more you naturally subtract more.

4. When discrepancies occur on both sides of the deck, that is the left hand side and right hand side, then you have to check off one against the other to obtain your figure.

In other words, if there are two discrep ancies in the left side and also two in the right side, then these check against each other and the card's numerical position will still be only doubled, that is, it will be 40th.

On the other hand, if there are a total of, say, five discrepancies, you must check off those that may be on both sides and then calculate the remainder. For example, out of five discrepancies, you find four on the left side of the deck and one on the right side. This checks off two discrepancies one from the left and one from the right leaving a total of three discrepancies on the left or bottom half. This would mean you add three to the doubled value giving you a total of 43 assuming your card was originally at the 20th position before the Faro Shuffle.

The rule is to check off the discrepancies against each other, then either add or subtract depending which side has the remaining discrepancies. Again, for the side which is the original bottom half of the deck, add one for each discrepancy, and for the side which is the original top half of the deck, subtract one.

Admittedly, the Faro Shuffle will take practice but once mastered, its rewards will have been worth the effort.

yours, Edward Mario

Chapter Seven

Faro Notes

Faro as a control Less Than 52 With Two Cards For Two Cards At Undetermined I Positions A Correction The Faro Calculator The Chain Calculator The Left Over Faro I Shufk Shuffling The Aces Placement Shuffle Control of the Aces An Out Shuf├če Effect Progressive Miracle New Deck P. M. 76-76-67-67 The Memorized Stack Fingertip Miracle Full Deck - Five Faro's The Reverse Or Backward Faro A False Shuffle Combination The Wrong Hand It's Mathematical Alternative Procedures Two Disclosures Automatic Placement Variants On Automatic Placement Faro Foolers A Double Location Variation On Automatic Placement Uses Of Partial Faro Check Exact Placement Instant 26th Location The 17th Location The 13th Location Wrong To Right

Having been interested in the Faro Shuffle ever since the days of Jordan and following its progress of application over the years, we thought that perhaps some of our findings and applications may be of interest. It has been over ten years since the Spade book that we have recorded anything in connection with the Faro as the interest in this type of work seemed lacking. However, there seems to have been a revival of this work due probably to the fact that through practice and perserverance several cardicians suddenly discovered that this type of perfect shuffle was possible not only once, but as many times as they wished.

The two predominant sources of the present research into the Faro or Weave, are those of Rusduck through his publication The Cardiste, and the series of articles by Alex Elmsley in the Pentagram. The terms, In and Out, as applied to the Faro by Elmsley, you will find to be of great help in understanding the shuffles. Briefly, an Out Shuffle (meaning Faro or Weave) is one in which the top and bottom cards remain the same while an In Shuffle is one in which the top and bottom cards change position to second from the top and second from the bottom. Each In Shuffle keeps changing the original top and bottom cards.

The Out Shuffle then places the Outside cards on the top and bottom while the In Shuffle brings the two cards from Inside the deck to the top and bottom.

Other that have been for the first time, such as Throw Off Faro, Off Center Faro, Above Crimp Faro, Faro Checks, etc. will be found completely detailed in Chapter Six, the Faro Shuffle, and indeed the student should really study that chapter before even attempting to completely understand this one.

We will not deal with mathematical equations or formulas, but, instead, work with basic arithmetic in the hopes that this will help in further understanding what happens during the shuffles. But first let's clear up a few fallacies you may just assume to be fact. Some may imagine, in regards to the Faro, that if it takes 8 Out Shuffles to bring a pack back to its original order then half the number, 4, should bring 26 cards back in order. However, the real truth is that it takes 20 Out Shuffles to bring 26 cards back in order.

It takes fewer In Shuffles, only 18, to bring 26 cards back in order. Yet it takes 52 In Shuffles to bring 52 cards in order and only 8 Out Shuffles to bring 52 cards back in order.

From the above, one may be quick to assume that the less the number of cards, the more Out or In Shuffles needed to bring the cards back in order; however, it takes only 6 In Shuffles to restore the order of 20 cards, while it does take 18 Out Shuffles to do the same thing, or 2 less than in the case of 26 cards.

In some cases, half the number of Out Shuffles required to bring a deck back in order will bring the pack in order in reverse, but this is not true for every case. This, also, applies to In Shuffles. As an example, a packet of 20 cards go back in order after 6 In Shuffles, but they will not reverse themselves after only 3 such shuffles.

The above facts may, or may not be, of use at present but you never can tell when just knowing of these things may be of some help in the future if only to prevent you from jumping to conclusions.

Let is now delve into the use of the Faro Shuffle as a possible and practical method of controlling a card. Again, we discard the slide rule or mathematics and depend on plain arithmetic during the shuffle.

1. The Top Half is automatically an Out Shuffle or an In Shuffle depending on the position of the card to be controlled.

2. The Bottom Half is also automatically an In Shuffle or an Out Shuffle depending on the position of the card,

3. Top portion will be referred to as Top Half and Bottom portion as Bottom Half even when the deck is not evenly split.

4. For the present, use what is normally an In Shuffle until you gain a clearer understanding of In and Out combinations. In other words, the top and bottom cards of the deck change or are; displaced during the In Shuffle, whereas an Out Shuffle retains the top and bottom cards.

This is easily managed by remembering that for an In Shuffle the top card of the Bottom Half goes above the top card of the Top Half

5. Using, in addition, a cut, that will either lose one or two cards or add one or two cards to either the top or bottom of the deck, will cut down on the number of shuffles required to bring the card to the top.

6. The card must eventually be brought to either the 27th from the top or 26th from the bottom so that a final hi Shuffle will bring it to the top.

7. How you manipulate the card into this central position depends on its original position. This is only simple arithmetic using key number of 7-1427 basically used from the top of the deck and 7-13-26 from the bottom ol the deck.

8. One can readily see that the first, object is to get the card to its nearest'

THE FARO AS A CONTROL

basic key number and, as an example, let us take an example problem of a card 15th from the top. The nearest key number is 14. All you do is lose the top card via a Double Undercut which makes the card 14th. Now, an In Shuffle makes it 28th but the key number from the top is 27, so again you cut one card from top to bottom, then do an In Shuffle which brings the card to the top.

9, Let's take another example. In this case, let's say the card is 20th. Naturally, you don't want to cut off more than two cards at anytime; also, you don't want to repeat the cut unec-essarily. Therefore, here is the procee-dure. The card is 20th from the top, but if you cut at 26, that card is 7th from the bottom in the top half. This, is figured from the placement of the card, 20th, and a key number of the top, 27, and 20 from 27 is 7.

Now, although you In Shuffle the deck, from the point of view of the bottom of the deck the bottom cards of this top half are Out Shuffled. This means that the card will arrive at double its number minus one, or 13th, from the bottom of the complete deck. This, of course, is one of your bottom key numbers,

The deck will now be given another In Shuffle, and because the card is 13th from the bottom in the lower half, it will become the 26 th card from the bottom. Another cut, and In Shuffling the top half brings the card to the top.

10. There is a distinct advantage in working cards from both top and bottom of the deck as practically only the final shuffle need be accurate. As an example, let's take the above 20th position. If you cut, it need not be perfect 26 as long as it is more than 20 and the Faro Throw Off In Shuffle is used. See Chapter Six, The Faro Shuffle

This brings the card 40th from the top. Now, subtract 40 from 53 (always add one to the number of cards in use, then subtract to give the correct position of card from bottom of deck, or from top as the case may be) which gives 13 as the position of the card from the bottom of the deck. Again you need not cut perfect 26 as long as the bottom half has more than the 13 cards. Now, an In Shuffle started at the bottom of the deck, the bottom card being replaced with with a new card of course, being an In Shuffle, brings the card 26th from the bottom. Now, a perfect cut at 26 which, of course, is tipped off by a perfect In Shuffle will bring the card to top.

Note, you can also use the Throw Off Faro Shuffle for the bottom 13 cards as in Chapter Six The Faro Shuffle.

11, The whole point is that you can make your own calculations for a single card during each shuffle rather than try and work out a formula for a predetermined position although this type has its advantages when more cards are involved as will be shown later.

Right now, let us assume your card is 11th from the top of the deck. Say to yourself, "An In Shuffle brings it to the 22nd position." After an In Shuffle, then you may say, "Well, another one will make it 44th from top." Again, do an In Shuffle.

Now, as long as the card is nearer the bottom you can start working from there. You subtract 44 from 53 which gives you 9, the card's position from the bottom. Then, you remember that 7 is one of your nearest key numbers from bottom. So you Double Under Cut 2 cards from the bottom to the top to bring the card 7th from bottom.

Another In Shuffle makes it 14th from the bottom. Then you remember that your next bottom key is 13, so again, you Double Under Cut, this time one card from bottom to top to bring the selected card 13 from the bottom. Now another In Shuffle makes it 26 from the bottom. A final In Shuffle makes it the top card.

12. Although in Step 11, five shuffles are involved, only the final or fifth shuffle has to be a perfect cut of 26 so the advantages of working from the top and bottom of the pack are evident.

Here, we give another example of a card in the 30th position to be brought to the top.

Subtract 30 from 53 which leaves 23 as the location of the card from the bottom. An In Shuffle will make it 46th from the bottom.

Now, again subtract 46 from 53 and you get i which is now the position of the card from the top. An In Shuffle brings it to 14th. Another In Shuffle brings it to 28th.

Perform a Double Under Cut to lose one card bringing it into 27 th position. Another In Shuffle brings it to the top.

Once again, only the final In Shuffle need be a perfect cut at 26 and shuffle to finish up with the selection on top.

Less Than 52

l.In those Weave shuffles involving less than 52 cards, such as, say, 32, you need first to break it down into its possible quarters to arrive at certain key numbers. First, you halve 32 which is 16, then half of 16 is 8, then half of 8 is 4. Basically, your key numbers from top down; 4-8-17.and from bottom up would be 4-8-16. Again, the Double Under Cut to lose or add cards is used to expedite matters.

2. Let's assume the card is 15th from top in a 32 card packet. Using the system of cutting not more than 2 cards, you can easily bring the card to 17th from the top. A cut at 16 and an In Shuffle brings it to the top.

3. The above is too simple an example so let us take 12 as its position. Because in this case adding or losing two cards in a cut will not make much difference to its position in relation to the key numbers. Naturally, you In Shuffle and the 12th card becomes 24.

As 24 is greater than half the number of cards in use, you can subtract 24 from 33. (Remember, you always add 1 to the number of cards in use, i.e., 32 plus 1 equals 33.) This gives you 9 as the position of the card from the bottom.

As your nearest key is 8, all you do is cut one bottom card to the top which brings the selection to 8th from the bottom. An In Shuffle makes it 16th from the top. A final perfect cut at half of 32, which is 16, and an In Shuffle makes that card the top card.

4. The above rules hold good for number of cards involved and with slight variation on the final shuffle, can be used with a packet of un-even cards such as say, 51 or 31. It is the cutting plus the working from both top and bottom that insures this easily.

5. As an example, let's assume we have 51 cards and our chosen card is 10th from the top. Proceed by In Shuffling at the top of the deck to bring the card to the 20th from the top.

Another In Shuffle brings it 40th from top. Now, 40 from 52 (number of cards in use, 51 plus 1 equals 52) leaves 12 so the card is 12th from the bottom.

Right here we must digress and point out that due to the deck being one card short, it changes the bottom central key numbers from 26 to 25 but all others remain the same.

An In Shuffle, started at the bottom of the deck will bring the 12th card to the 24th position. As the nearest key is 25, a Double Cut to bring the top card to the bottom will set this card at the 25th position. A cut at 26 will bring card to top. But how do you know you cut at 26?

Easy, all you do is start your In Shuffle with 2 cards falling away from the bottom before doing the weave. If you are right, every card will be In Shuffled from the top of the deck down, but on the bottom, two cards will be left instead of the usual one card as when dealing with an even number of cards.

Again, only one such perfect shuffle is needed, the final one.

6. The same rules holds true for the card packet or any odd numbered packet. A brief example is the card 15th from the top in a 31 card packet.

A cut of two cards from bottom to the top brings it to 17th. A cut at 16, letting 2 cards drop off at the bottom, and ifthe rest weave perfectly, you can't be wrong. The card is on top.

7. When working with even numbers, the central keys differ only by one, such as when 26 becomes 27 or 16 to 17, but when working with uneven numbers, the bottom central key differs by two, such as 25 to 27 with 51 cards, or 15 to 17 with 31 cards.

8. Obviously, these methods can be used to control a selected card to the top via a Faro Shuffle providing you know its exact location prior to doing the shuffles. This position can be ascertained in many ways which will be detailed here later. The big point is that from here on it is impossible for the spectator to follow the control of the card. The operator will have an uncanny feeling when he realizes that he is controlling a card that he doesn't even know the name of yet, without any breaks, jogs, or crimps, etc.

9. To further show its possibilities, let us take the case of two cards that may have been selected and returned to the pack.

With Two Cards

1. Again, you must get the cards returned into a predetermined position from which they are then controlled to the top via the Faro Shuffle. In our case, we have decided on 10 and 20 as the two positions.

2. The selected cards are easily replaced into the above 10th and 20th

Elace by simply fanning 9 cards, then aving one replaced, then another nine, and having second card replaced.

3. With cards at 10 and 20, a Faro Shuffle brings them to 20 and 40.

4. A perfect cut at 26 and an In Shuffle brings the 40th card to 26 from the bottom (as per our arithmetic 40 from 53 equals 13, plus an In Shuffle equals 26), while the 20th card is now 40th.

5. A cut at 26 will automatically bring one card to the top and at same time set the card from 40th position to 26 th from the bottom.

6. Another cut at 26 and an In Shuffle, will bring both cards together at the top.

7. Thus, four Faro Shuffles will bring the two selections to the top. Three of the four Faros, however, have to be cut at a perfect 26,

For Two Cards At Undetermined Positions

1. It is possible to control 2 cards that may be at numbers arrived at by chance.

2. As an example, suppose the pack is shuffled, then the spectator A deals off cards until he cares to stop. The deck is now handed to spectator B who does likewise.

3. Spectator A is asked to shuffle his packet of cards and then to note the bottom card and remember it. Spectator B is also asked to shuffle his packet and note the bottom card after the shuffle.

4. Spectator B now replaces his packet onto the deck and spectator A also returns his packet onto the deck.

5. Performer now cuts the deck and fairly shuffles it, thus apparently losing all possible control of the cards, yet he has each card under control.

6. The process is simply to remember the numbers of cards dealt off by spectator A, then to continue the count when spectator B deals the cards. In this way you get the position of both cards from the top of the deck.

7. Let us suppose that spectator A's card is 9th from top and spectator B's card is 21st from top.

8. The first thing to do is to bring the first spectator's card to the nearest key position from the top by losing or adding cards by use of the Double Cut.

9. As 7 is the nearest key to 9. you would remove the two top cards via a Double Cut. This will mean that the 7th card will eventually be brought to the top in three shuffles, plus a Double Cut to lose one card.

10. Also, when you lose the top two cards, you must remember that the card spectator B took has a new position of 19. You can now forget about spectator A's card and only keep track of spectator B's card as will be shown.

11. First, remember that three Faro Shuffles with one Double Cut after the second shuffle will automatically bring A's card to the top; therefore, it is obvious that B's card has to be followed for these three shuffles in order to determine its position after the third shuffle.

12. Cutting at 26 and giving the deckl an In Shuffle will bring B's card, which, was 19th, to double that number oil 38th from the top. Following the rule of subtracting from 53 whenever the posi J tion of the card followed is over 26, youj do just that. In this case, 38 from 531 now means that B's card is 15 from the bottom.

A second cut at 26, plus an In Shuffle] brings B's card to 30th from the boi-: torn. As this is the second shuffle, you lose the top card to the bottom in order to bring As card to 27th from the top, but at the same time getting B's card to 31st position from the bottom. Again, following the rule of subtracting from! 53 whenever the card's position is over 26, we get 31 from 53 or 22 from the top.

Now, the third cut at 26 plus an In Shuffle, gets A's card to the top but you are following B's card to the 44 th position from the top.

13. You now have A's card on top and[ also know that B's card is 44th from the top or subtracting this from 53. gives you 9 from the bottom. How youj proceed from this point depends on! what you want to accomplisn with the, effect.

14. Assuming you wish to get B's card to the top with A's card, the simplest proceedure is to get B's card to its nearest key. In this instance, B's card! is 9th, nearest key is 7, so cut off the two cards from the bottom and push or weave these into the center of the deck,

15. With B's card 7th, you can Out Shuffle the bottom portion to bring the card to 13th from the bottom.

16. This time an In Shuffle with only about 20 of the bottom cards, will bring the B card to 26th from the bottom and retain A's card on top of the deck.

17. A cut at 26 and an In Shuffle will put B's card on top of A while an Out Shuffle will place B's card under A.

18. In Steps 15 and 16, it is not necessary to cut perfect 26 as long as the Faro itself is made correctly. As a matter of fact, the upper portion should be larger in order to retain A's card on top, while B's card is controlled into position.

19. In Step if the card was, say 5th from the bottom, you would have to add two cards from top to the bottom in a cut, But remember to first do a slight overhand shuffle to reversing the top card A into the third position. This way, after the top two cards are cut to the bottom, to bring B's card up to the key number, card A will still be on top.

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